In 2011, the Cohen Commission convened special hearings on disease in salmon farms, forcing fish farm companies and the provincial and federal governments to make their disease data public. When Dr. Kristi Miller took the stand, she revealed that Tofino-based Creative Salmon had for seven years been dealing with an undiagnosed disease which was causing jaundice in their fish. They had asked her to investigate. Her study revealed that Creative’s Chinook salmon had Piscine reovirus (PRV).
Fast forward seven years, with farmed salmon disease making headlines on a regular basis. A 2018 study from the Strategic Salmon Health Initiative (SSHI) sheds new light on PRV. The study looked at samples from farmed Chinook and Atlantic salmon. Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a Norwegian virus. In Atlantic salmon it is known to cause Heart and Skeletal Muscular Inflammation. Turns out PRV behaves differently in Chinook salmon. When PRV gets in the red blood cells of Chinook, it causes them to burst. The toxic levels of hemoglobin then overwhelm the liver and kidneys, resulting in an anemic appearance.
Dead fish swimming
The study found a high prevalence of PRV among farmed fish, with 65 to 75 per cent of both Atlantic and Chinook salmon carrying the virus and a quarter of them having a “high viral PRV load.” Fish living in pens have the luxury of being fed (and protected from predators) while they are sick. It’s hard to find PRV-infected fish in the wild, because they don’t survive. Given the high prevalence of PRV on BC salmon farms, study co-author Dr. Kristi Miller is very concerned about the potential for disease spreading to wild fish, stating “They are dead fish swimming as soon as they are physically compromised”.
The study is even more alarming because Chinook populations are collapsing on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Chinook are the preferred food of endangered southern resident orcas.
Contaminated bloodwater still flowing into Tofino Harbour
Remember Tavish Campbell’s shocking 2017 footage of bloodwater billowing out underneath fish plants? Some of that footage was taken at Creative Salmon’s processing plant in Tofino. Their bloodwater was tested and found to have PRV. Clayoquot Action was able to sample some of the rockfish feeding at the outlet pipe, and they had PRV too.
The pipe at Creative’s plant continues to spew disease-tainted bloodwater into Tofino Harbour. The Ministry of Environment promised a study, but has done nothing to turn off the tap.
Only removing salmon farms from wild salmon migratory routes will put an end to the spread of disease from farmed to wild salmon. It is inevitable that this will happen, but will it happen in time to save one of the most precious resources on the planet?
Dan Lewis is Executive Director of Clayoquot Action.
A massive outbreak of salmon lice in the Clayoquot Sound UNESCO Biosphere Reserve is threatening to wipe out this year’s salmon runs. Cermaq’s documentation on salmon lice for April show that the numbers of salmon lice on seven of their fourteen Clayoquot farm sites are up to ten times higher than the threshold which requires treatment. The regulatory threshold is three motile salmon lice per farm fish.
There are 20 open net-pen salmon farms in Clayoquot Sound, all located on wild salmon migration routes. The salmon lice outbreak is occurring as wild salmon smolts are leaving Clayoquot’s rivers to begin their life at sea. Continue reading →
Wilderness photographer Tavish Campbell grew up on a remote BC island and has spent most of his life exploring the coastline of British Columbia above and below water. He recently dove under the Browns Bay plant near Campbell River—which processes Cermaq’s farmed salmon—and was disgusted to see a plume of blood water shooting out into wild salmon habitat. The effluent contained fish tissues, which were sent to the Atlantic Veterinary College for analysis. The samples tested positive for Piscine reovirus (PRV).
Creative Salmon in Tofino
Campbell then drove to Tofino to see what was happening with the effluent from the plant processing Creative Salmon’s farmed Chinook salmon. Continue reading →
A small ad appeared in Tofino’s newspaper about a week ago. It stated that Norwegian-based salmon farming giant Cermaq was applying to the BC Ministry of Environment for a permit to use Interox® Paramove® 50 to combat sea lice. A bit of searching on Cermaq’s website revealed their application is to deposit 2.3 million litres of pesticide—enough to fill an Olympic-sized swimming pool—into the pristine waters of the Clayoquot Sound UNESCO Biosphere Reserve over a three-year period. Continue reading →
I knew back in the 1980s when Norwegian salmon farming companies began to move to Canada that it would not be good for the BC coast. This concern was confirmed when Patrick Moore, Greenpeace cofounder turned anti-environmentalist, showed up at a public meeting in Vancouver to defend the fledgling industry. Back then I was (rightly) concerned that they would be located in the remote bays and inlets I loved to explore by kayak. It was many years before we began to fully understand the ecological impacts.
Disease transfer from farmed to wild salmon is dangerously easy
One of the big fears is the transfer of diseases from farmed to wild salmon. When you understand the mechanism of transfer, the implications are chilling. It came out during Canada’s 2010 Cohen Commission that an infected farm can shed up to 65 billion viral particles per hour. BC’s big tides cause strong currents, which can spread these viral particles far and wide. Remember, fish breath through gills, so the water they swim through comes in direct contact with their blood and voila—those viral particles are in the wild fish! Continue reading →